Hillsborough Extension Garden Blog

Solutions you can use for your gardening problems.

Honey Bee Swarms May 23, 2014

Filed under: Uncategorized — Hillsborough County Residential Horticulture @ 4:40 pm

By: Nancy Ham, Master Gardener and Advanced Bee Keeper

 During spring and early summer in Florida, homeowners may experience a fascinating phenomenon that can intrigue or alarm them. They will suddenly notice a large cluster of insects in a tree or object near their home that wasn’t in this locate earlier. Upon further investigation they will discover the insects are honey bees. These large clusters of bees are called swarms.

Honey Bee Swarm in Palm Tree credit: W.H. Kern, UF

Honey Bee Swarm in Palm Tree
Credit: W.H. Kern, UF

Why do bees swarm?

Honey bees are social insects that live in colonies of up to or more than 80,000 individuals. Within their colonies the queen lays over 1,000 eggs each day during the spring build up, which allows the colony to dramatically increase in size. The colony therefore is a society made up of thousands of individuals, of which each has a role and function within the colony.

However, the colony is more than just a collection of thousands of individuals. It is also a single entity that acts as a whole for the survival of the colony. This is called a superorganism. One of the functions of a superorganism is reproduction and the way the colony reproduces is by swarming and establishing a new colony separate from the parent colony.

What is a swarm?

When the colony begins preparing to swarm, the workers within the colony select several fertilized eggs and feed these larvae a special diet to create new queens. They usually create multiple new queens to ensure the survival of the parent colony. The older worker bees are the individuals that will leave with the old queen leaving behind the younger nurse bees to care for the brood and the new queen in the colony. In the preparation, the bees may withhold food from the old queen so she loses weight and will be able to fly. Just before they leave the colony, the workers will gorge on food from the colony as they may be without food for a few days.

Honey Bee Queen Cells Credit: Mark Dykes, UF

Honey Bee Queen Cells
Credit: Mark Dykes, UF

Then, at the right moment, the old queen and the older workers will exit the parent colony in a large mass. They usually do not fly a long distance at this time but will land on a structure within a short distance from their parent colony. This is the cluster of bees that suddenly appears in the home owners yard.

While the swarm is hanging out at their first landing area, scout bees are flying in all directions looking for suitable locations to establish a permanent home. This process can take only a few hours or can last a few days. Once a location is selected, the entire swarm will leave for that location.

Swarms usually occur in the spring and early summer as the bees instinctively know they are in a race against time and the availability of food is high. The new swarm must select a new home site, build enough comb to rear the next generations and store food for the coming winter. Not unsurprisingly, it is estimated that most new feral hives do not survive the following winter.

Honey Bee swarm Credit: Michael K OMalley, UF

Honey Bee Swarm
Credit: Michael K OMalley, UF

Can swarms be prevented?

Beekeepers with managed hives in an apiary obviously want to prevent swarms but they are working against mother nature. Losing half or more of the bees from any hive greatly reduces the strength and productivity of the hive. Likely, the beekeeper will not be able to harvest any products from that hive until at least the next fall when the population in the hive has recovered. This has negative economic impact for the beekeeper.

There are a number of things conscientious beekeepers will do to attempt to prevent swarms. One commonly used technique is to split any overcrowded hives. These “splits” are made by literally making two hives from one. This technique simulates an artificial swarm and each hive will have a much smaller populations than the original hive making it less likely to swarm.

An empty super can also be added to the hive creating more space. Bees tend to prefer empty spaces above them and will move into the extra space provided them.

Another swarm management trick is to remove frames of brood from a strong hive and place them in a weaker hive. This may reduce swarming tendencies in the larger hive and help shore up the population of a weaker hive.

One swarm control practice that is also a best management practice (BMP) and provides multiple benefits to the hive is requeening the hive. A young, strong queen will produce more pheromones and lay larger numbers of eggs which tends to discourage swarming.

Other techniques include clipping one of the queens wings so she cannot fly, placing a grid over the hive entrance that prevents the larger body of the queen from exiting the hive, cutting open swarm cells that are found in the hive and even setting up swarm traps around the apiary in an attempt to capture your own swarms.

All of the above only work on hives that are being actively managed by a beekeeper in an apiary. Feral hives have no such oversight and can swarm at will.

Honey Bee swarm Credit: UF/IFAS

Honey Bee Swarm
Credit: UF/IFAS

Are swarms dangerous?

Anytime there is a cluster of insects that can sting, caution should be taken. However, new swarms usually do not exhibit defensive behavior, as they have nothing to defend. They have left their home behind and have not yet begun to build a new home.

But most homeowners will not be able to tell the difference between a swarm and a feral hive. Once the bees start building new comb, they have established a new hive location and will defend the new location.

Although many homeowners express delight in having feral colonies on their property for the increased pollination activity and the joy in watching them, safety of humans and pets must be considered. When bees sting, the victim is injected with venom. Bee stings are uncomfortable and a very small percentage of humans have an allergy to bee venom, which can cause respiratory problems. Sometimes it’s the location of the feral hive that is the concern. If located near human or pet activity, the homeowner should consider removal.

Are they Africanized bees?

All honey bees are programmed to swarm regardless of their genetic makeup. The Africanized honey bees (AHB) does swarm much more often than the gentle European honey bee but that does not mean the swarm in your backyard is Africanized. Although behavioral characteristics can give an indication, identification of the AHB can only be made from lab analysis. The best recommendation for the homeowner is to limit contact with the swarm until it leaves quickly or to contact a registered beekeeper for removal or a licensed pest control operator for eradication.

How are bees removed?

The method of removal is up to the homeowner. Many homeowners are very aware of the value of honey bees and the challenges beekeepers face in keeping them healthy. Destruction of the swarm or colony is not their first choice. In this case, the homeowner can contact a registered beekeeper that is experienced in bee removal. It is important to select a registered and experienced beekeeper to reduce the chance of human or property damage. A registered beekeeper will have the personal protective equipment to safely handle the bees. This will include a veil, possibly gloves and a jacket, a smoker and some type of container to safely transport the bees. As a homeowner, it would be foolhardy to allow someone without the necessary experience and equipment to attempt to remove the bees.

Do not use wasp or hornet spray on the bees. If the bees are sprayed, most beekeepers will not attempt a capture as the likelihood of survival is low and the beekeeper will not be willing to introduce bees carrying pesticides into their apiary.

To find a registered beekeeper trained in bee removal, consult the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) Bee Removal or Eradication List available on their website. Beekeepers on this list are not only registered but have received training in AHB issues. Many of the registered beekeepers on this list offer removal services as part of their business and charge a fee. This should be discussed with the beekeeper to avoid any surprise. If the bees are located inside a wall or in a location not easily accessed, discuss the method of removal before the removal is attempted. Most beekeepers are not licensed contractors and will not be responsible for building repairs.

In the event the homeowner has already sprayed the bees or simply wishes the bees be eradicated quickly, FDACS also lists licensed pest control operators (PCO) on the same list previously mentioned. These operators have received special training in bee eradication and responding to AHB. They are verified as having a valid license and will have the proper personal protective equipment. Only a licensed PCO can use chemicals to eradicate the bees. The PCO has been trained in the use of these chemicals and a registered beekeeper cannot use chemicals to eradicate the bees.

References and more information:

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Bee Removal or Eradication List

http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Agricultural-Environmental-Services/Consumer-Resources/Bee-Removal-or-Eradication-List

UF/IFAS Extension African Honey Bee Extension and Education Program:

http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/afbee/

Swarm Control for Managed Beehives

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in970

For questions, please contact our office. The Hillsborough County Extension Service is located at 5339 County Road 579, Seffner, Florida 33584. Our office hours are Monday –  Friday from 8:00 AM – 5:00 PM.



 

January’s Garden Money-Saving Tip: Make Your Own Vegetable Stock January 17, 2014

Filed under: Uncategorized — Hillsborough County Residential Horticulture @ 9:04 am
Tags: , , , , , ,

Make Your Own Vegetable Stock
by Nicole Pinson, Urban Horticulture Agent and Master Gardener Coordinator and
Dr. Mary Keith, Food, Nutrition and Health Extension Agent UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County

I love to cook, and this year one of my resolutions is to make more meals at home. I find chopping vegetables (like weeding!) cathartic, and preparing a tasty, elegant meal for myself is a gift. So, while cooking tonight’s mushroom barley soup (it’s getting really cold in Florida- time to start making and freezing soups!), I thought of this month’s tip.

We chop our veggies and add them to meals. And, some of us are smart enough to save those kitchen scraps and throw them on the compost pile, with the understanding that our kitchen scraps will add nutrients to the compost pile, rendering them into a rich, fertile soil we can later add to more crops or our landscape beds.

I have a suggestion to make those kitchen scraps go even further: use them for stock and then compost them! Two uses for the same valuable “scraps.”

Celery stalks and leaves can be added to soups and stocks. Photo: Carolyn Keeney

Celery stalks and leaves can be added to soups and stocks. Photo: Carolyn Keeney

Homemade stock is easy and lends a delicious base to soups. When I cook, I keep a zip top bag next to the wood chopping block for tops of carrots, onion skins, tomato cores. For tonight’s dinner, my bag was stuffed with onion and garlic skins, carrot tops and bottoms, celery stems and leaves (I actually love to use celery leaves in dishes and as a garnish) and mushroom stems.

Zip top bag filled with stock ingredients. Photo: Nicole Pinson

Zip top bag filled with stock ingredients. Photo: Nicole Pinson

If you have space in the freezer, you can gradually accumulate a good mixture of vegetable scraps over time, to get a better blend of flavors. Vegetables in the cabbage family in particular – turnips, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli – are quite strong-flavored and can overpower the flavor. Once your frozen bag is full, follow Mary’s directions below to make your stock.

Place clean kitchen scraps in a pot and cover with water. Bring to a boil and then simmer uncovered from 15 minutes to 1 ½ hours. The longer cooking will release more flavor if you have the time. Then squeeze or strain all the water out of those vegetables. Just straining them makes a clearer stock, while pressing them will often make a cloudy but thicker stock. I use a wooden spoon in a sieve for pressing, but a potato masher would work well too.

Use the stock immediately in soups or freeze and save for later. Stock will keep for 3-5 days in the refrigerator or 8 months in the freezer. Freeze it in quantities that you will use at one time, so that you can thaw just enough for your next recipe.

After you’ve made your meal with fresh vegetables, use the pieces to make your stock. By making your own homemade stock, you’ll create delicious meals, add more minerals and maybe a few vitamins to your food and use more of the produce you’ve purchased. You will also be able to make it with little or no salt, a big benefit since most commercial stocks and broths are very high in sodium. Then, discard those veggies on your compost pile.

Compost your scraps after using them in stock. Photo: Nicole Pinson

Compost your scraps after using them in stock. Photo: Nicole Pinson

Now, you successfully got “more bang for your buck,” cooking meals at home, making fresh stock and composting. Bon appétit!

Nicole Pinson
Extension Agent – Urban Horticulture
Master Gardener Coordinator
UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334
p: (813) 744-5519 X 54145
nicolepinson@ufl.edu
pinsonn@hillsboroughcounty.org

 

It’s Phytophthora, Not a Lichen December 31, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — Hillsborough County Residential Horticulture @ 6:59 pm

Lichens often get a “bad rap.” They are a common “mistaken identity” and blamed for tree and plant death and decline.

A lichen (pronounced lī-ken) is a relationship between an algae and a fungus, but the fungi do not exist independently and therefore are not capable of causing disease.  Lichens have structures called rhizoids, or fungal hyphae, and the rhizoids attach to rocks, bark, branches, and soil. As with Spanish moss, lichens do not parasitize the structures they are living on. They obtain minerals from atmospheric moisture such as rainwater, fog and dew, plant leachates and organic debris.

Examples of common lichens mistaken as disease. Photo credit: Nicole Pinson

Examples of common lichens mistaken as disease. Photo credit: Nicole Pinson

If your tree appears diseased, consider other contributing factors such as stress, drought, disease, insects and water. For example, if your citrus tree is declining and you see a gummy sap, the problem may be phytophthora, not a lichen.

Lichen on citrus tree.

Lichen on citrus tree.

The UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center provides a website for management and field diagnosis of phytophthora and other citrus diseases. You can access the site at this link: http://www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/plant_pathology/phytophthora.shtml

Phytophthora is a soil-borne disease. Signs and symptoms of phytophthora include yellow veins, shoot dieback and leaf/fruit drop, trunk damage (often from mechanical equipment), gummosis, sloughing off of roots (root rot) and bark peeling in the crown roots and trunk located near the soil level (foot rot).

Causes of phytophthora or foot rot include poor drainage or soils with hard pans or clay layers, areas with a high water table, overirrigation, tree damage, planting too deep and mulching around the base. Use of mulch under citrus trees can make your tree prone to infection by limiting air circulation. Be sure to maintain a grass and weed free zone beneath your tree.

Phythophthora, also known as foot rot. Photo credit: UF/IFAS

Phythophthora, also known as foot rot. Photo credit: UF/IFAS

You can try to scrape off the discolored bark until you reach healthy wood, and apply a copper fungicide to affected areas. Treatment with a copper fungicide may help, but foot rot is very serious and your tree may not recover. In addition, disease occurs when three conditions favor disease development: susceptible host, environment and pest or pathogen. All three need to be present for disease to occur. If you treat with fungicides or replant, and do not address conditions such as poor drainage, the problem may continue to occur.

The UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County provides information about citrus diseases. Contact our office if you have questions about how to care for your dooryard citrus.

Nicole Pinson
Extension Agent – Urban Horticulture
Master Gardener Coordinator
UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334
p: (813) 744-5519 X 54145
nicolepinson@ufl.edu
pinsonn@hillsboroughcounty.org

http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.edu

 

Indian Hawthorne Spots

Filed under: Uncategorized — Hillsborough County Residential Horticulture @ 5:55 pm

Have you noticed spots on your Indian Hawthorne plants?

Leaf spots on Indian Hawthorne can be evidence of Entomosporium leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot or anthracnose. All are caused by fungi that spread by spores.

Temperatures between 59°F and 77°F favor Entomosporium leaf spot. Warm temperatures and wet conditions favor anthracnose and Cercospora leaf spot. Dry conditions are less conducive to disease development.

Although it is difficult to control the weather, you can reduce disease potential by:

  • replacing overhead irrigation with drip irrigation (which also helps conserve water).
  • watering in early morning, or close to dew point, to reduce the amount of time moisture remains on leaves.
  • changing irrigation practices when weather (for example, rainfall) favors disease development.
  • improving air circulation around plants.
  • pruning and removing dead and diseased branches.
  • collecting leaves with symptoms and disposing them in the trash (not in the compost pile).
  • following the 3rd Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM principle and fertilizing appropriately, to discourage disease development.
  • following the 4th Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM principle and applying a two to three inch layer of mulch.
  • selecting disease resistant cultivars.
  • using and rotating fungicides when appropriate.
  • learning what is normal in your garden and scouting regularly for pests and diseases.

The UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County provides information about plant disease and can assist you with symptom identification. Contact our office if you have questions or need assistance with sample submission. In some cases, sample analysis by a laboratory may be necessary to determine the exact cause of disease.

 

Nicole Pinson
Extension Agent – Urban Horticulture
Master Gardener Coordinator
UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334
p: (813) 744-5519 X 54145
nicolepinson@ufl.edu
pinsonn@hillsboroughcounty.org

http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.edu

 

Identifying Citrus Greening

Filed under: Uncategorized — Hillsborough County Residential Horticulture @ 4:16 pm

A Hillsborough County resident contacts the Extension office, asking how to tell if her citrus trees are infected with citrus greening. She mentions over the past few years, her trees have declined and some of the leaves look similar to pictures she has seen online.

Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, is one of the more recent diseases affecting citrus trees. Confirmed in Florida in 2005, the disease has spread to all citrus producing counties in the state.

All citrus are susceptible to greening, and the disease is caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter spp. and the bacterium is spread by a tiny insect vector called the Asian citrus psyllid. When the Asian citrus psyllid feeds on infected citrus trees, it can pick up the disease-causing bacterium and move the disease from tree to tree.

This bacterial disease affects the vascular tissue of the plant (the phloem) and inhibits nutrient transport. When phloem transport is disrupted, signs such as twig dieback occur. Citrus greening causes smaller fruit, inferior fruit quality and taste, less fruit production, increased fruit drop and twig dieback.

To determine if citrus greening disease may be causing your tree to decline, please consider the following symptoms:

  • The early symptoms of citrus greening on leaves are vein yellowing and an asymmetrical “blotchy mottle.”
  • Trees may show twig dieback, causing productivity to decline within a few years.
  • Fruit are often few in number, small, may be lopsided with a curved central core and fail to color properly. You can often cut the fruit in half and notice the lopsided, central core.
  • Fruit drops prematurely from afflicted trees.
  • The fruit may contain aborted seeds and have a salty, bitter taste.
Asymmetrical fruit with lopsided central core and aborted seeds. Photo credit: JoAnn Hoffman

Asymmetrical fruit with lopsided central core and aborted seeds. Photo credit: JoAnn Hoffman

Leaf showing blotchy mottle. Photo credit: Mongi Zekri

Leaf showing blotchy mottle. Photo credit: Mongi Zekri

If your citrus trees are healthy, take care of them by following a routine fertilizer and irrigation schedule. Avoid planting and neglecting citrus trees in the landscape. If trees no longer produce fruit, homeowners must decide to remove them and whether or not to invest in replanting.

Florida oranges supply about 90% of the United States’ orange juice. Citrus greening impacts our lives because it reduces juice quality, decreases revenue and employment opportunities and affects Florida’s culture, as citrus trees and fruit are a sentimental, inherent part of Florida’s landscape and history. There is a lot we don’t know about this disease, but coordinated research efforts focused on psyllid control, tree nutrition, mapping genomes, biological control and disease-resistant trees may provide insight into this disease.

The UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County provides information about citrus greening and can assist you with symptom identification. Contact our office if you have questions about citrus greening or sample submission.

Nicole Pinson
Extension Agent – Urban Horticulture
Master Gardener Coordinator
UF/IFAS Extension Hillsborough County
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334
p: (813) 744-5519 X 54145
nicolepinson@ufl.edu
pinsonn@hillsboroughcounty.org

http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.edu

 

Summer Solarizing and Nematodes August 9, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — Hillsborough County Residential Horticulture @ 11:22 am
Tags: , , , , , , ,

Although you can grow some vegetables in Central Florida during summer, your choices are limited. Many gardeners choose to solarize their vegetable gardens during summer, because soil solarization works best during hot months. Solarization is a practice used to manage weeds, nematodes, diseases and insects in soil.

Image

Solarizing soil kills weeds.

Soil solarization works by heating up the soil and killing or reducing pest populations. However, this is a temporary solution for nematodes, as nematode pests living deep in the soil will survive and can eventually move up into the solarized area. This re-invasion of the solarized soil usually takes about 3-4 months, so after that time the effects of solarization diminish.

According to the UF/IFAS publication Introduction to Plant Nematology, “preventing a nematode population is far better than trying to treat one after it is established.” Nematodes are cylindrical microscopic worms that live in the soil. They feed on living plant tissues and puncture cell walls with an oral spear-like stylet. Nematodes feed on ornamentals, vegetables and lawns.

Illustration of nematode size compared to a cotton thread.

Illustration of nematode size compared to a cotton thread.

You can decrease nematode populations by:

  • choosing healthy plants
  • adding organic matter (which improves soil structure and fosters natural enemies such as fungi and predatory nematodes that help control pest nematodes)
  • practicing crop rotation
  • propagating/taking cuttings only from uninfested plants
  • choosing nematode resistant varieties and cultivars
  • removing crops after harvest/season to prevent them from harboring pests
  • sanitizing tools and equipment
  • planting vegetables at the right time of the year based on the Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide
  • planting cover crops between vegetable crops
  • keeping plants healthy and making plant selections based on the Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM principle “right plant, right place”.

In addition, the Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Management manual states: “Use mulch and organic matter. Mulch around the roots of plants to protect them from extreme temperatures and minimize water evaporating from the soil surface. Mulches also return organic matter back into the soil, which improves the soil water- and nutrient-holding capacity. Mulches also reduce stress on plants and their roots. This improves plants’ chances to tolerate some nematode root damage.” Mulching is also one of the 9 Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM principles.

At this time, there are no chemicals available for homeowners to control nematodes.

For more information, please contact the Hillsborough County Extension Service at (813) 744-5519 or by email at hillsmg@ad.ufl.edu.

References:

Introduction to Soil Solarization

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in856

Solarization for Pest Management in Florida

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in824

Introduction to Plant Nematology

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ng006

Kinds of Nematodes

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_kinds_of_nematodes

Florida Vegetable Gardening Guide

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/vh021

Florida-Friendly Guide to Plant Selection and Landscape Design

http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/publications/files/FFL_Plant_Selection_Guide.pdf

Hillsborough County Gardening Calendar

http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.edu/documents/pdf/lawn_garden/Gardening%20Calendar-Monthbymonth.pdf

Nicole Pinson
Extension Agent – Urban Horticulture
Master Gardener Coordinator
UF/IFAS Hillsborough County Extension Service
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334
p: (813) 744-5519 X 54145
nicolepinson@ufl.edu
pinsonn@hillsboroughcounty.org

http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.edu

 

Summer Flowers Could be Pesky Weed April 17, 2013

It’s April, and you may start to see these “beautiful” yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers falling from the sky or branches of your trees. Although it may resemble Allamanda, it may actually be cat’s claw vine. Macfadyena unguis-cati develops strong vines that grow up trees, fences, and buildings.

"Snake-like” seed pod, yellow trumpet-shaped flower, and young seedling.

“Snake-like” seed pod, yellow trumpet-shaped flower, and young seedling.

Look for identifying clues, such as vines climbing to the tops of trees, woody stems, tuberous roots, terminal 3-forked tendrils that appear “claw-like,” trumpet-shaped yellow flowers, and linear, flat fruit (seed) capsule. The runners may appear to be a groundcover.

Cat’s claw vine, Macfadyena unguis-cati is a nonnative, introduced plant that has become an ecological threat, naturalizing in north Florida and Georgia. Originating in the West Indies, Mexico, and Argentina, it may be confused with our native yellow Jessamine, Gelsemium spp. The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council categorized Cat’s claw vine as a Category I exotic invasive.

For more information on identification and control, please contact the Hillsborough County Extension Service at (813) 744-5519.

Cat’s claw vine.

Cat’s claw vine.

Note: leaves opposite, compound, 2-leaflets, and terminal 3-forked, “claw-like” tendril.

Note: leaves opposite, compound, 2-leaflets, and terminal 3-forked, “claw-like” tendril.

Seedlings- note tuberous roots.

Seedlings showing tuberous roots.

References:

UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/259

Visit this website to see the UF/IFAS Assessment, download a recognition card, download a page from  from Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas – Second Edition, by K.A. Langeland, H.M. Cherry, et al. University of Florida-IFAS Pub SP 257. 2008.

BioNET-EAFRINET Keys and Fact Sheets

Macfadyena ungus-cati (Cat’s Claw Creeper)

http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Macfadyena_unguis-cati_(Cats_Claw_Creeper).htm

Invasive Plants of the Eastern United States: http://www.invasive.org

Ward, D.B. 2005. Putting a stop to the cat-claw vine infestation in Gainesville. Wildland Weeds 8(3):17.

Nicole Pinson
Extension Agent – Urban Horticulture
Master Gardener Coordinator
UF/IFAS Hillsborough County Extension Service
5339 County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334
p: (813) 744-5519 X 54145
nicolepinson@ufl.edu
pinsonn@hillsboroughcounty.org

http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.edu

 

 
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 119 other followers

%d bloggers like this: